Listed below are the ideas which have been proposed, along with images
representing prototype implementations of each technique. Unless
otherwise stated, the dataset being used for these examples is
synthetic, and the grid size is 30 by 90 by 12 grid cells.
Data Reduction Techniques
Proposed Visualization Techniques
Cones for Flux
2D Icons for Flux
Small Data Examples
Sanity Check on Reservoir G
The technique which was suggested is something like this: at each grid
location, create an icon who's shape is a function of two parameters. One
of the parameters is SO or SOM (or some other variable to be determined).
The other is the flux (for oil, I'd guess). The idea is to have what is
basically a sphere (that's large enough to see) in areas where SOM or SO is
HIGH and the flux value is LOW. And to have footballs or ellipsoids in
areas where SOM or SO is high and flux is HIGH. And voila!
You'll see that in that same area of high SOM and low flux a bunch of spheres.
Elsewhere, where flux is significant in magnitude, the icons get more
oblongated. The sizes of the icons don't really mean much because of a
simple trick I put in to get the spheres to stand out: the major and
minor axes of the footballs are scaled DOWN by a value which is the ratio
of the major and minor axes. Which means that spheres stay big and
ellipsoids get smaller. There are a couple of other issues which I'll
leave out for now...
Here's a snapshot from a few time steps later in the simulation..
Use of color to highlight a change in a scalar variable.
The first example shows using the location of well "W12" (presumably a water
injector). Rather than beginning the streamlines computation at
the location of the well, which would result in flow directly out of
the grid to the bottom because of a strong downward flow, we seed the
points at some distance away from the well. This distance is under
After positioning the location of a virtual well into the flow field,
and decreasing the density of sample points around the well,
streamlines are produced which eminate from a virtual cylinder,
of a user-specifiable
radius, around the virtual well. Note that these streamlines were
computed using the LBL-written streamlines code. The numerical method being
used is the second order Runge-Kutta form of time-velocity integration.
Backwards streamlines computed from a virtual well placed at what
looks like an oil producing area. A radius of about "1200" (in the local
coordinate system) spreads the seed points out around the well. The streamlines
are depth-colorized, and some effort in tweaking renderer parameters was
needed (depth cueing and adjusting of the front/rear clipping planes) to
effectively "hide" data which is "far away".
here for super hi-res version (1800x1600) of this image. This image computed from "live" data from the
Another example using two layers of cones. One layer represents a depth-
averaging of the first 3 simulation layers, the other represents a depth-averaging
of the bottom four simulation layers. The seed points for the streamlines
are placed at some distance radially from the virtual well to achieve
Same as previous picture, but added time-markers along
Some issues to consider (for the above image) are:
A first cut at putting flow
BARBS on the grid blocks. The barbs are oil
flux, and the boxes are colored according to the pressure in the init map file.
I only put barbs on one of the 8 block faces.
However, when "similar" simulation layers are combined, the amount of
data to visualize and interpret is reduced by an order of magnitude. In
this image, the top few simulation layers are combined into a single layer
of flux; similarly with the bottom few simulation layers. The general
trend in each of the top few and bottom few layers is much more obvious
in this image than in the image containing a geometric icon at every
These images make the same point, but were computed using "live" data
from the "C" reservoir.
Check out a couple of short, 13-frame MPEG movies:
Per-Cell Cones Movie and
Depth-Averaged Cones Movie.
(Note: you may want to tweak your Mailcap file so that mpeg_play will
loop explicitly, since these movie loops are so short.
This image is from a "live" reservoir. Cones are placed at grid coordinates
in which the flux data is non-zero. Again, green represents oil flux,
and red represents gas flux.
Same as above, but with color-coded transmissiblity magnitude at the grid
Mpeg movie containing 50 time steps.